I. Giới thiệu chung

Tôn giả Nadīkassapa – người anh giữa trong nhóm ba vị đạo sĩ thờ lửa

Brother of Uruvela Kassapa and one of the Tebhātika Jatila (three brothers).

He received his name from living on the bank of the Nerañjarā at the head of three hundred ascetics. (Thag.340-44; ThagA.i.434, etc.) 

For his story see s.v. Uruvela Kassapa.

Anh (Em) trai của Uruvela Kassapa và một trong Tebhātika Jatila (ba anh em).

Ngài nhận được tên của mình khi sống trên bờ sông Nerañjarā , nơi đứng đầu của ba trăm nhà khổ hạnh. (Thag.340-44; ThagA.i.434, v.v.) 

Về câu chuyện của anh ấy, hãy xem sv Uruvela Kassapa .

II. Trưởng lão tăng kệ – Tiểu bộ kinh Nikaya

Trong thời đức Phật hiện tại, ngài sanh trong một gia đình Bà-la-môn ở Magadha (Ma-kiệt-đà), là anh của Kassapa. Ngài thiên hẳn đời sống xuất gia, không ưa thích đời sống gia đình, và ngài trở thành một ẩn sĩ. Với ba trăm đồ chúng, ngài sống một đời sống ẩn sĩ trên bờ sông Neranjarà (Ni-liên-thiền), và do vậy ngài được biết và được gọi là Kassapa ở bên sông (Nadi-Kassapa). Ngài được Thế Tôn giáo hóa cùng với hai anh em, như đã được ghi trong Luật tạng. Sau khi Thế Tôn thuyết kinh Lửa Bốc Cháy, ngài chứng quả A-la-hán. Sau đó, suy tư trên thiền chứng, ngài nói lên chánh trí của mình, bằng cách nhổ lên các sai lầm:
339. Thật lợi ích cho ta
Ðức Phật đến tại đây,
Ðến con sông tên gọi
Sông Nê-răn-ja-ra,
Ta nghe pháp ngài giảng
Ðoạn tận các tà kiến
340. Ta hành lễ tế tự,
Ðọc cao lời tế lễ,
Ta đốt lên lửa thiêng,
Ðổ cúng dường vào lửa,
Nghĩ rằng ta thanh tịnh,
Ta thật mù, phàm phu.
341. Lang thang rừng tà kiến,
Bị giới cấm, mờ mắt,
Không tịnh, nghĩ thanh tịnh,
Mù lòa, ta không thấy
342. Ta đoạn tận tà kiến,
Mọi sanh hữu phá tan,
Ta đốt lên ngọn lửa,
Xứng đáng được cúng dường,
Ta cúi mình đảnh lễ,
Bậc Như Lai Ðiều Ngự.
343. Mọi si mê, ta đoạn,
Hữu ái được phá hủy,
Ðường sanh tử đoạn tận,
Nay không còn tái sanh.

III. Từ Tipitaka.com.vn


Chapter V.
 Five Verses

203. Kassapa of the River

Reborn in this Buddha-age in a clan of Magadha brahmins(priests) , as the brother of Uruveḷa-Kassapa, hie religious inclination made him dislike domestic life, and he became an [196] ascetic. With 300 ascetics he carried on a hermit’s life on the banks of the River Nerañjarā, and thus he became known, by his habit and the name of his clan, as Kassapa of the River. Now how the Exalted One(Buddha) initiated him into monkhood and his company by the summons, ‘Come, bhikkhu,’ is recorded in the Khandaka.[1] He was confirmed in arahantship(enlightenment) by the Exalted One’s sermon on Burning. Thereafter reflecting on his achievement, he declared aññā (attainment) by way of expressing his rooting out of error:

[340] Atthāya vata me buddho nadiɱ nerañjaraɱ agā,||
Yassāhaɱ dhammaɱ sutvāna micchādiṭṭhiɱ vivajjayiɱ.|| ||

[341] Yajiɱ [39] uccāvace yaññe aggihuttaɱ juhiɱ ahaɱ,||
Esā suddhiti maññanto andhabhūto puthujjano.|| ||

[342] Diṭṭhigahanapakkhanno parāmāsena mohito,||
Asuddhiɱ maññisaɱ suddhiɱ andhabhūto aviddasu.|| ||

[343] Micchādiṭṭhi pahīnā me bhavā sabbe vidālitā,||
Juhāmi dakkhiṇeyyaggiɱ namassāmi tathāgataɱ.|| ||

[344] Mohā sabbe pahīnā me bhavataṇhā padālitā,||
Vikkhīṇo jātisaɱsāro natthi dāni punabbhavo’ ti.|| ||

[340] O truly for my good it was that He,
The Buddha came to the Nerañjarā, Whose doctrine hearing, I renounced wrong views.

[341] The celebrant in many a sacrifice,
I fostered sacred fire, oblations made;
‘These be the pure and holy rites!’ I think –
O blind and average person that I was!

[342] Errant in wilderness of heresies,
By their contagion dazed and led astray,
I deemed that pure religion which was false.
And blinded was I, shiftless, ignorant.

[343] Now is all error put away for me;
Broken the line of comings back to be.
Worth every gift, the Fire I celebrate:[2] I worship Tathagatha (i.e Buddha).

[344] Illusions all have I put far away.
Crushed is the thirst for going on to be,
And shattered is the endless round of life.
Now comes no more rebirth for me!

[1] Vinaya Texts, i. 118-185.

[2] The Sammaāsambuddha (Commentary).

5.6 [203] Commentary on the stanza of Nadīkassapatthera

The stanza starting with atthāya vata me constitutes that of the venerable thera Nadīkassapa. What is the origin? This one also having done devoted deeds of service toward former Buddhas, accumulating good deeds conducive towards escape from rounds of repeated rebirths (vaṭṭa) in this and that existence, was reborn in a family home at the time of the Blessed One Padumuttara(Buddha); on having attained the age of intelligence, he, one day, happened to have seen the Master, wandering about for alms-food, became pious-minded, and offered a mango fruit of the colour of red arsenic (manosilā), the first that had sprung up as the fruit of the tree planted by himself. On account of that act of merit, he wandered about his rounds of repeated rebirths among divine and human beings, and was reborn as the brother of Uruvelakassapa, in a brahmin family in the kingdom of Magadha, when this Buddha arose; on having come of age, he renounced the world by becoming a hermit-recluse, owing to his not wanting to lead the life of a householder due to his keen intention (ajjhāsaya) of escaping (nissaraṇa) from saṃsāra, and dwelt together with three hundred hermits on the bank of the river Narañjara after having built his hermitage (assama). Indeed, because of his staying on the shore of the river and because of his Kassapa clan he was known as Nadīkassapa. The Blessed One gave him along with his retinue the full ordination by their being addressed as “Ehi bhikkhu(Come, O monk!).” All of it is but as has but come in the khandaka division of the Vinaya. He became established in Arahantship by means of the teaching (desanā) on Ādittāpariyāya (the burning allegory, of the Blessed One). Hence, has it been said in the Apadāna:–

“I offered to the Master, Buddha Padumuttara

such a sage as the eldest of the world the

worthy recipient of dedicated donations,

the hero, the bearer (dhārato) of most

excellent fame, who was wandering about

for alms-food the foremost (agga) fruit

collected by me with my pleasingly

pious mind.

O ruler of the two-legged (dvipadinda)

the eldest of the world (lokajeṭṭha),

the bull among men! On account of

that act, I have attained the unshaken

(acalaṃ) place, after having abandoned

victory (jaya) and defeat (parājaya).

It was a hundred thousand aeons (kappa)

ago, that I then offered charity. I do

not remember any evil existence; this

is the fruitful result of my foremost

(agga) offering.

My depravity had been burnt. …

Buddha’s instruction had been carried


Having become established in Arahantship; however, he subsequently reflected upon his own proper performance (paṭipatti) and spoke these stanzas in order to reveal his Arahantship (aññā) by way of (mukhena) announcing his having uprooted (samugghāta) his wrong views (diṭṭhi).

340. “Indeed for my welfare, Buddha reached

the river Nerañjara; having listened to

the truth (dhamma) taught by Him, I

discarded my wrong views.

341. “I performed sacrifices, high and low;

I made my fire worship and sacrifice,

considering these to be deeds of purity,

I, being a blinded commoner (puthujjana).

342. “Plunged (pakkhando) into the wilderness

(gahana) of wrong views (diṭṭhi), deluded

by wrong practice (parāmāasa) blinded

(andhabhūto) and ignorant, I thought

of the impure to be pure.

343. “The wrong view had been given up by

me; all existences had been cut asunder.

I (now) make my sacrificial service

(juhāmi) to the fire-like one, worthy

of dedicated donations and I bow my body

to Tathāgata.

344. “All my delusions had been dispelled:

craving (taṇhā) for existence (bhava)

had been cut asunder; rounds of repeated

rebirths had been totally exhausted;

there is, now, no more new existence.

There, atthāya vata me means: indeed, for my welfare. Buddho means: the omniscient Buddha. Nadiṃ Nerañjaraṃ agā means: reached the river Nerañjara; on the shore of that river also, He came near the hermitage of my brother UruvelaKassapa; thus, is the significance.

Now, in order to clarify (vivarituṃ) the meaning according to what has been said, it has been stated thus: “Yassāhaṃ,” etc. Yassa means: of Buddha, the Blessed One Dhammaṃ sutvāna means: having heard the truth (dhamma) aptly associated with the fourfold noble truths; having closely gained in accordance with (anusāra) the ear-doors. Micchāditthiṃ vivajjayaṃ means: I gave up the wrong (viparīta) view (dassana) comprising such manner of happenings as “Yaññādīhisucchi hoti (by means of sacrifices, etc. one makes oneself pure).”

In order to show in extenso the meaning of what has, has but been said thus: “I gave up (my) wrong view,” he said: “Yajiṃ” and so on. There, yajiṃ uccāvace yaññe means: I performed several sacrifices of such categories as: the obvious (pākata) “offering,” Soma offering, Vājapeyya sacrifice and so on. Aggihuttaṃ juhiṃ ahaṃ means: I attended (paricariṃ) upon fire, promoting (paggaṇhanto) sacrificial offering (āhutiṃ) by way of performance of those sacrifices (yañña). Esā suddhī ti maññanto means: these performances of sacrifice (yañña) and attending (pāricariya) upon fire are pure owing to the condition of the cause of becoming clean (suddhihetu), considering thus: “In this manner there is my purification of rounds of repeated rebirths (saṃsārasuddhi). Andhabhuto puthujjano means: having been a blinded (andhabhuta) commoner (puthajjana) owing to the condition of the blindness of ignorance (avijjā) due to deficiency of the eye of wisdom (paññā). Diṭṭhigahanapakkhando, parāmāsena means: the wilderness of the very wrong views is wrong-view wilderness because of the condition of being difficult to get across similar to the forest wilderness and mountain wilderness and so on; having plunged (pakkhando) into and accordingly entered it; having gone beyond the nature of the truth (dhamma), with the tendency towards (abhinivesa) wrong deeds reckoned as holding on to perversion (parāmāsa) owing to being perverted, saying: “This along is truth.” Mohito means: having reached the state of being deluded. Asuddhiṃ maññisam suddhiṃ means: I thought the impure path to be the pure path (magga). He spoke of the reason there thus: “Andhabhūto aviddasu.” It means: since I became blinded by ignorance (avijjā), consequently only I had no knowledge of truth (dhamma) and untruth (adhamma) as well as what is fit and unfit (yuttāyutta); therefore, I thought in that manner; thus, is the meaning.

Micchāditthi pahīmāno means: all my wrong views had been rejected by way of relinquishing by extirpation (samucchadapahāna) by means of the right view (sammādiṭṭhi) of the noble (ariya) path (magga), when I did regulate my life (paṭipajjanta) which had become in this manner, wisely (yoniso) after having heard the teaching of the truth (dhamma) pregnant with (gabbhaṃ) the fourfold noble truths, in the very presence of the Master. Bhavā vidālitā means: all such existences as the existence of sensual pleasures (kāma), etc. had been destroyed (viddhaṃsita) by the weapon (sattha) of the noble (ariya) path (magga). Juhāmi dakkhiṇeyaggi means: I attend upon (paricarāmi) and make my offering to Buddha, the well self-awakened, the fire of worthy recipient of dedicated donations owing to His burning away of all evil, because of His being the foremost worthy recipient of dedicated donations of the world together with the divine world after having rejected the fire of sacrificial offering and so on (āhavanīyādika). Namassāmi tathāgataṃ means: he said thus: this is my adoration (namassama) to the Master, in that I attend upon (Him) as the fire of worthy recipient of dedicated donation with such unsuspecting (nirapakkha) offerings of milk-curd, fresh butter (navanīta), churned butter-milk, ghee and so on. In other words, juhāmi dakkhineyyaggi means: having made myself likewise I make offering to and attend upon myself and look after myself having made myself become worthy of dedicated donations by means of my burning away evil owing to my making the dedicated donations of the donors to become bounteously fruitful; formerly I would adore the god of fire; now I bow my body to Tathāgata.

Mohā sabbe pahīnā me means: all my delusions had been dispelled; all my delusions classified as absence of knowledge in painful misery (dukkha) and so on had been rejected and abolished. But subsequently the grammatical word me (my), should be brought over to these three expressions: “Bhava taṇhā padālitā, vikkhīno jātisaṃsāro, and n’atthi ‘dāni punabbhavo, and interpreted.

The Commentary on the stanza of the Thera Nadī-Kassapa is complete.

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