Tôn giả Upavāṇa – từng làm thị giả cho Đức Phật.
1. Upavāna.-A thera. He belonged to a very rich brahmin family of Sāvatthi, and having seen the Buddha’s majesty at the dedication of Jetavana, he entered the Order and became an arahant with sixfold aññā. For some time, before Ananda was appointed upatthāka, Upavāna waited on the Buddha. Once when the Buddha was attacked by cramp, Upavāna, with the help of his lay-friend Devahita, obtained hot water and suitable medicines, with which the ailment was healed; the Buddha, thereupon, expressed his gratitude. ThagA.i.308ff; this ailment does not seem to be mentioned in Milinda 134f. where several others are given. This incident is given at greater length in S.i.174f; see also DhA.iv.232f.
When the Buddha lay on his death-bed at Kusināra, Upavāna was by his side fanning him; the Buddha, seeing that he obstructed the vision of the devas who had come to pay their last homage to the Teacher, asked Upavāna to move away (D.ii.138f).
Two occasions are mentioned on which Upavāna consulted the Buddha on matters of doctrine, once regarding the arising of suffering (S.ii.41-2) and once on the immediate and practical use of the Dhamma (sanditthikadhamma) (S.iv.41). There is also recorded a visit of Upavāna to Sāriputta when they were both staying in the Ghositārāma at Kosambī. Sāriputta asks him about the bojjhangas as being conducive to a happy life and Upavāna explains (S.v.76). On another occasion Upavāna is the enquirer, and he asks Sāriputta about the “end-maker” (antakara); Sāriputta explains that the “end-maker” is the one who knows and sees things as they really are (A.ii.163).
When an unpleasant interview took place between Sāriputta and Lāludāyī (q.v.) and no one was found to support Sāriputta, the matter is reported to the Buddha, who declares that Ananda should have taken Sāriputta’s side. Soon afterwards Ananda seeks Upavāna and tells him that he was too timid to interfere, and if the Buddha referred to the matter again, would Upavāna undertake to answer? In the evening the Buddha engages Upavāna in conversation and asks him to explain the five qualities which make a monk esteemed and loved by his colleagues. At the end of the discourse the Buddha applauds Upavāna (A.iii.195f).
In Padumuttara’s time Upavāna had been a poor man. Seeing people making great offerings at the Buddha’s Thūpa, he was much touched, and having washed his upper garment, he hung it as a flag over the Thūpa. A yakkha named Abhisammataka, who was the guardian of the cetiya, took the flag three times round the cetiya, he himself remaining invisible.
A monk whom the man consulted after this miracle foretold that for thirty thousand kappas he would be in the deva-worlds and that he would be deva-king eighty times. One thousand times he was Cakkavatti. In his last life his wealth was eighty crores. When he was Cakkavatti, his banner was held aloft, three leagues in height. Ap.i.70ff.
1. Upavāna. – Thera. Ông thuộc một gia đình Bà-la-môn rất giàu có ở Sāvatthi, và đã nhìn thấy sự uy nghi của Đức Phật khi cúng dường Jetavana, ông đã gia nhập Dòng và trở thành một vị A-la-hán với sáu bậc aññā. Trong một thời gian, trước khi Ananda được bổ nhiệm làm upatthāka, Upavāna đã chờ đợi Đức Phật. Một lần khi Đức Phật bị chuột rút tấn công, Upavāna, với sự giúp đỡ của người bạn cư sĩ Devahita, đã lấy được nước nóng và các loại thuốc thích hợp, nhờ đó bệnh được chữa lành; Đức Phật, ngay sau đó, bày tỏ lòng biết ơn của mình. ThagA.i.308ff; căn bệnh này dường như không được đề cập trong Milinda 134f. nơi một số người khác được đưa ra. Sự cố này được đưa ra ở độ dài lớn hơn trong Si174f; xem thêm DhA.iv.232f.
Khi Đức Phật nằm trên giường lâm chung tại Kusināra, Upavāna ở bên cạnh và quạt cho Ngài; Đức Phật, khi thấy Ngài đã cản trở tầm nhìn của chư thiên, những người đã đến để đảnh lễ lần cuối cùng với Vị Thầy, đã yêu cầu Upavāna rời đi (D.ii.138f).
Hai lần được đề cập đến mà Upavāna đã hỏi ý kiến Đức Phật về các vấn đề giáo lý, một lần liên quan đến sự phát sinh của đau khổ (S.ii.41-2) và một lần về việc sử dụng Giáo pháp (sanditthikadhamma) tức thời và thực tế (S.iv.41) ). Cũng có ghi chép về chuyến viếng thăm của Upavāna đến Sāriputta khi cả hai đang ở trong Ghositārāma tại Kosambī. Sāriputta hỏi anh ta về bojjhangas có lợi cho cuộc sống hạnh phúc và Upavāna giải thích (Sv76). Trong một dịp khác, Upavāna là người hỏi han, và ông ta hỏi Sāriputta về “người tạo ra cuối cùng” (antakara); Sāriputta giải thích rằng “người sản xuất cuối cùng” là người biết và nhìn mọi thứ như thực tế của chúng (A.ii.163).
Khi một cuộc phỏng vấn khó chịu diễn ra giữa Sāriputta và Lāludāyī (qv) và không tìm thấy ai ủng hộ Sāriputta, vấn đề được báo cáo với Đức Phật, người tuyên bố rằng Ananda nên đứng về phía Sāriputta. Ngay sau đó Ananda tìm Upavāna và nói với ông rằng ông quá nhút nhát để can thiệp, và nếu Đức Phật đề cập lại vấn đề này, Upavāna có cam kết trả lời không? Vào buổi tối, Đức Phật bắt chuyện với Upavāna và yêu cầu ông giải thích năm phẩm chất khiến một nhà sư được đồng nghiệp quý trọng và yêu mến. Vào cuối bài pháp, Đức Phật hoan nghênh Upavāna (A.iii.195f).
Vào thời Padumuttara, Upavāna là một người nghèo. Nhìn thấy mọi người đang cúng dường lớn lao ở Thūpa của Đức Phật, ông rất cảm động, và đã giặt áo trên của mình, ông treo nó như một lá cờ trên Thūpa. Một yakkha tên là Abhisammataka, người bảo vệ cetiya, cầm cờ ba lần quanh cetiya, bản thân ông vẫn vô hình.
Một nhà sư mà người đàn ông tham khảo ý kiến sau phép lạ này đã báo trước rằng với ba mươi nghìn kappa, anh ta sẽ ở trong các thế giới deva và rằng anh ta sẽ làm vua deva tám mươi lần. Một nghìn lần anh ta là Cakkavatti. Trong cuộc sống cuối cùng của mình, tài sản của ông là 80 crores. Khi anh ấy còn là Cakkavatti, biểu ngữ của anh ấy được treo trên cao, cao ba giải đấu. Ap.i.70ff.
Trong thời đức Phật hiện tại, ngài sanh trong một gia đình Bà-la-môn ở Sàvatthi, được đặt tên là Upavàna. Thấy được uy nghi đức Phật khi Kỳ Viên được dâng cúng. Ngài xuất gia, phát triển thiền quán, chứng được sáu thắng trí.
Rồi Upavàna trở thành vị thị giả đức Phật. Bấy giờ, Thế Tôn bị đau nhức mỏi, một đệ tử cư sĩ của ngài tên là Devahita sống ở Sàvatthi cúng dường bốn vật dụng cần thiết cho ngài. Khi Upavàna đến với y và bát, Devahita biết ngài cần dùng một vật đặc biệt nên hỏi. Ngài trả lời với bài kệ như sau:
185. Bậc ứng Cúng, Thiện Thệ,
ẩn sĩ bị phong thấp,
Nếu ông có nước nóng,
Hãy cúng dường ẩn sĩ.
186. Cúng dường người đáng cúng,
Cung kính người đáng kính,
Tôn trọng người đáng trọng,
Ta mong muốn vị ấy,
Ðược vật cúng mang đến.
Rồi vị Bà-la-môn dâng cúng nước nóng và thuốc trị bệnh. Nhờ vậy, bệnh của Thế Tôn thuyên giảm và Thế Tôn tỏ lời cảm ơn.
Reborn in this Buddha-age at Sāvatthi, in a brahmin’s family, he was named Upavāna. He saw at the Jeta Grove presentation the majesty of the Buddha, and entering the Monk’s order, practised for insight, and won sixfold abhinna(higher knowledge).
Now Upavāna. became attendant on the Exalted One(Buddha). And at that time the Exalted One was attacked by cramp. And Devahita, a brahmin(priest) lay-friend of the Thera, living at Sāvatthi, was supplying him with the four necessaries. Seeing him come with bowl and robe, Devahita discerned that he needed something different and said: ‘Let your reverence be supplied. What do you need?’ And Upavāna. answered:
 Arahaɱ sugato loke vātehābādhito muni,||
Sace uṇhādakaɱ atthi munino dehi brāhmaṇa.|| ||
 Pūjito pūjanīyānaɱ sakkareyyāna sakkato,||
Apacitopacanīyānaɱ tassa icchāmi hātave’ ti.|| ||
 The Arahant(enlightened), the Tathagatha (i.e. Buddha) of all men,
The Holy Sage, he suffers much with wind.
If there be any water heated here,
O give it to me, brahmin(priest), for the Sage.
 Revered by them to whom we reverence owe,
Cherished by them who claim our pious care,
Honoured by them to whom honour is due,
For Him I do beseech it may be brought.
because of that the brahmin(priest) offered both hot water and suitable medicine. By that the Lord(Buddha)’s sickness was healed, and to him the Exalted One rendered thanks.
 See CCLX. On the ailment cf. Milinda i., 194, n. 4.
The stanza starting with arahaṃ sugato constitutes that of the venerable Thera Upavāṇa. What is the origin? It is said that he was born in the family of a pauper at the time of the Blessed One Padumuttara; On having attained the age of intelligence, when the Blessed One entered parinibbāna, he made his reverential offering of a flag which he made after fastening his own upper garment, which had been well washed at a bamboo-top, at the solid shrine of seven leagues (yojanika) when the same was made of seven sorts of gems by human and divine beings, by dragons (nāga) and garuḍa birds (garuḷa), by celestial demons (kumbhaṇḍa), ogres (yakkha) and celestial musicians (gandhabba) after having collected His relics. The commander-in-chief of ogres, named Abhisammataka, who was posted (ṭhapito) for the purpose of looking after the reverential offerings of the shrine, by divine beings, with his body being unseen, caught hold of that flag, held it in the sky and circumambulated the shrine three times. On having noticed it, he became much more pious-minded. On account of that act of merit, he wandered about his rounds of repeated rebirths and was reborn in a brahmin family in Sāvatthi when this Buddha arose; he gained the name Upavana; on having come of age, he happened to have notice the power of Buddha at the accepting celebration of Jetavana, aptly gained pious faith, became a monk, kept on doing the deed of developing spiritual insight (vipassanā), attained Arahantship and became possessed of six sorts of higher-knowledge. Hence has it been said in the Apadāna:–
“The Conqueror named Padumuttara,
proficient in all truths (dhamma)
having shone bright like a mass of
fire, Buddha the awakened entered
The multitude of men came together,
made reverential offerings to Tathāgata,
heaped up a funeral pile (citaṃ) well
finished (sugataṃ) and had the body
specially mounted (on it).
Having done their duty to the (demised)
body, they brought together relics there.
All those divine and human beings built
a shrine of Buddha.
Firstly the shrine was made of gold;
secondly it was made of emerald (maṇi);
thirdly, it was made of shining silver
(rūpiya), fourthly it was made of crystal;
there fifthly also it was made of red ruby;
sixthly it was made of cat’s eye precious
stone (masāragalla); all above was made
The lower portion of the shrine (jaṅgha)
was made of emerald (maṇi); the railings
were made of gems; the shrine was made
wholly of gold; it went a league (yojana)
Divine beings assembled there and con-
sulted unitedly (ekato) then; we also
shall set up a shrine for such a great
personage as the protector of the world.
There exists no special relic; the body
had become a single lump (of relics); at
this shrine of Buddha we shall make an
With seven sorts of gems, divine beings
increased the shrine by another league,
(yojana); the shrine became two leagues
(yojana) in height; that shrine dispelled
(byapahanti) darkness (timiraṃ)
dragons assembled there and consulted
unitedly then; human as well as divine
beings, they set up a shrine of Buddha.
Let us not be negligent; the world
together with the divine world, are
diligent. We also shall set up a shrine
of such a sage as the protector of the
world. Having had the celestial sovereign
sapphire (indanīla), the mighty sapphire
(mahānīla), besides the emerald of shining
essence (jotiresamaṇi) assembled together
they enveloped the shrine of Buddha.
As far as the shrine of Buddha became
entirely made of emerald (maṇi) it well
became three league (yojana) high, the
maker of light then. Garuḍa birds also
came together and consulted unitedly then;
those human beings, divine-beings and
dragons made reverential offerings to
Let us not be negligent; the world
together with the divine world had been
diligent. We also shall set up a shrine
for such a sage as the protector of the
world. They also made an encasement;
a shrine entirely made of emerald;
they also increased outstretching
(āyataṃ) the shrine of Buddha by a
league (yojana). Four leagues (yojana)
in height, the shrine of Buddha shone
forth (virocati); it illumined all
directions resembling the sun that
has risen (sataraṃsīva uggato).
Celestial beings (kumbhaṇḍa) also
came together, and consulted unitedly
then; human beings, and divine beings
also, dragons and likewise garuḍa birds
as well, respectively built the most
excellent shrine, for Buddha the best;
let us not be negligent; the world
together with the divine world, had
We also shall set up a shrine for such
a sage as the protector of the world.
Stretching out (āyataṃ) the shrine of
Buddha, we shall encase it with gems.
Outstretching the shrine of Buddha
they also increased it by a league
(yojana). Five leagues in height, the
shrine then had shed its light.
Ogres came together there, and con-
sulted unitedly then; human and divine
beings, dragons, garuḍas and divine
demons, respectively (paccekaṃ) set
up the most excellent shrine; let us
not be negligent; the world together
with the divine world had been diligent.
We also shall set up a shrine of such a
sage as the protector of the world; let
us encase it with crystal (phalika) in
stretching out the shrine of Buddha.
They also in stretching out the shrine
raised it by a league (yojana). Six
league (yojana) in height, the shrine
shone forth then.
Celestial musician (gadhabbā) came
together and consulted then unitedly;
human beings, divine beings, dragons
divine demons and likewise garuḍas,
all of them had built a Buddha shrine;
here, we are non-doers; we also shall
set up a shrine, of such a sage as the
protector of the world.
Having made seven railings (vediyo),
they made a flag and an umbrella;
the celestial musicians made then the
shrine entirely of gold.
Seven leagues (yojana) in height, the
shrine shone forth then. People did
not know about day and night; there
was light at all times (sabbadā).
Sun and moon together with the stars
did not overwhelm the light of that
shrine. For a league (yojana) all
round, the lamp also was not bright.
At that time, those human beings who
made reverential offerings to the
shrine, did not ascend the shrine;
they threw their offerings up to
The ogre named Abhisammata, posted
by the divine beings, specially mounted
either the flag or flower wreath fur-
The donors did not see that ogre;
they, however, saw their flower-
wreath going up; those who went
away after seeing their offerings
in this manner, all went to the
excellent existence (sugati).
Those human beings who were hostile
(viruddha) to the teachings of Buddha
(pāvacana) and those human beings (who)
were piously pleased with the dis-
pensation (sāsana), who were desirous
of seeing the miracle (pāṭihīraṃ) made
their reverential offerings to the
shrine. In the city of Haṃsavatī,
I was then a wage earner; having seen
the multitude bemused (āmoditaṃ) I
thought over in this manner, then.
This (eso) Blessed One to whom there
is such a relic residence (dhātughara)
as this (īdisa) cannot but be excellent
(na uḷāro); this multitude of men are
jouful also; they are not satiated
with their doing acts of worship
(kārṃ kubbaṃ na tappare). I also
shall perform my act of worship (kāraṃ)
to such a sage as the protector of
the world. In time to come I shall
become an heir to His teachings of
I had my upper garment (uttareyyaṃ
pataṃ) well-washed and dyed (sudhotaṃ
rajakena), had it hung (ālaggatvā)
at a bamboo top (veḷagge), I hoisted
(to flew) a flag in the sky, Abhisam-
mataka took hold of my flag and carried
it in the sky. On having seen my flag
shaken by breeze I roused my joy much
Having made my mind piously pleased
over that act, I approached a monk;
having paid my homage to that monk, I
asked him about the result (vipāka) of
that flag (offering).
He spoke to me gladdening words (ānandī)
arousing my zest (pītisañjananaṃ); ‘you
will enjoy, at all times, the good result
of that flag’.
A fourfold (caturaṅginī) army (comprising)
elephants, horses, chariots and foot
soldiers will be your retinue (parivāressanti)
always; this is the fruit of flag-offering.
Sixty thousand musicians and well decorated
drums will surround you always; this is
the fruitful result of your flag offering.
Eighty six thousand well-adorned ladies,
wearing variegated clothes and ornaments,
adorned with emerald ear-rings, with
thick eye-lashes (aḷārapamhā) with
‘smiling speech’ (hasulā), having
good understanding (susañña), with
tender waist (tanumajjhimā), will
always surround you; this is the
fruitful result of your flag offering.
For thirty thousand aeons (kappa)
you will enjoy yourself in the divine
world; eighty times you will be a
divine ruler and will exercise divine
A thousand times, you will be world-
king; in abundance will be your regal
reign, incalculable numerically.
A hundred thousand aeons (kappa) hence,
the Master, named Gotama by clan, an
offspring of Okkāka family will appear
in the world.
Having passed away from the divine
world, you will become a kinsman
of brahmā urged by your bringht basis
(sukkamūlena codito), connected with
your act of merit.
Having discarded (your) eighty crores
(of wealth) and many slaves and ser-
vants, you will become a monk in the
dispensation (sāsane) of the Glorious
Having won the heart (ārādhayitvā)
of the self-awakened Buddha Gotama,
the bull among men of the Sākiyans,
you will become a disciple of the
Master, known by the mane of Upavana.
The deed done by me a hundred thousand
(aeons ago) showed its fruitful result
to me here; similar to the speed of an
arrow well discharged I had burnt my
When I was a world-king, exercising my
sovereignty over the four islands,
there were always erected flags all
over three leagues (yojana) all round.
It was a hundred thousand aeons (kappa)
ago that I then did my deed; I do not
remember any evil existence; this is
the fruitful result of my flag offering.
My depravity had been burnt. …
Buddha’s instruction had been carried
The venerable Upavāṇa became the attendant (upaṭṭhāka) on the Blessed One. On that occasion also, there arose ‘wind-disease’ (vātābādha), internal pains to the Glorious One. A lay associate of the Thera, a brahmin named Devahita aptly resided in Sāvatthi. He declared himself to be the supplier (pavedesi) of four recluses’ requisites to the Thera. The venerable Upavāṇa put on his lower robe, took his bowl and robe and went to the residence of that brahmin. Having come to know that the Thera had come (to him) for this or that purpose (kenaci aññena payojanena), the brahmin asked thus: “Venerable Sir! You might tell (me) what you need. “The Thera spoke two stanzas informing his purpose to the brahmin:–
185. “The worthy sage Sugata in the
world is ailing with internal
pain (vātehābādhiko); O brahmin’
If you have hot water, offer it
to the sage.
186. “I want to make offering to him,
who had been honoured by those
worthy of honour, respected per-
sonally by those who should be
personally respected, and has been
treated with courtesy by those who
should be treated with courtesy
The meaning of that speech; Loke pūjaneyyānaṃ pūjito means; whoever in this world had been honoured by such divine beings, etc., who ought to be honoured; Sakkareyyānaṃ sakkato means: had been personally respected by such kings as king Bimbisāra and Kosala who ought to be personally respected; apaceyyanaṃ apacito means: had been treated with courtesy by such great sages as Arahants who are free from cankers, who ought to be treated with courtesy; He is arahaṃ (Arahant) by being far away and so on from all forms of depravity; He is sugato, sugata by good going and so on; He is muni (sage) by being omniscient, my Master, the divine of divine, super-Sakka of Sakkas, super-brahmā of brahmās, vātehi ābādhiko means: He has become ill with disease caused by wind and marked by shaking of mind (vātakkhobhanimittaṃ). Sace brāhmaṇa uṇhodakaṃ atthi (O brahmin! Should there be hot water); tassa means: for the purpose of dispelling His wind disease, hārave icchāmi means: I want you to offer it (to Him). Having heard what was said, the brahmin made his offering to the Blessed One, of hot water and medicine commensurate worthy of wiping out the wind disease. By means of it also, the ailment of the Master got cured. The Glorious One made His thanksgiving to him.
The Commentary on the stanza of the Thera Upavāṇa is complete.
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