Kinh Trung Bộ ENG 112 Kinh Sáu Thanh Tịnh (Chabbisodhana sutta)

Kinh Trung Bộ ENG 112 Kinh Sáu Thanh Tịnh (Chabbisodhana sutta)

Phần I  –  Phần II  –  Phần III


Majjhima Nikāya
III. Upari Paṇṇāsa
2. Anupada Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
III. The Final Fifty Discourses
2. The Division of the Uninterrupted

Sutta 112

Chabbisodhana Suttaɱ

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, O.B.E., M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
Creative Commons Licence
For details see Terms of Use.

 


[81]

[25] [1][chlm][ntbb][upal][olds] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the Jeta Grovevin Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.

While he was there
the Lord addressed the monks,
saying:

“Monks.”

“Revered One,”
these monks answered the Lord in assent.

The Lord spoke thus:

“Monks, a monk here declares profound knowledge,
saying:

‘Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is [82] what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or so.’

Monks, the words of this monk
are to be neither rejoiced in
nor protested against.[1]

Without (your) rejoicing or protesting,
the question might be asked:

“Your reverence,
these four modes of statement[2]
have been rightly pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

What four?

That which when seen
is spoken of as seen,
that which when heard
is spoken of as heard,
that which when sensed
is spoken of as sensed,
that which when cognised
is spoken of as cognised.[3]

Your reverence,
these four modes of statement
have been rightly pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

But knowing what,
seeing what
in respect of these four modes of statement
can your reverence say
that his mind is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining)?’

Monks, the explanation of the monk
in whom the cankers are destroyed,
who has lived the life,
done what was to be done,
laid down the burden,
attained his own welfare,
in whom the fetters of becoming
are utterly destroyed
and who is freed
by right profound knowledge,
would be in accordance with Dhamma
were he to say:

‘I, your reverences,
not feeling attracted[4] to things seen,
not feeling repelled by them,
independent,
not infatuated,
freed,
released,
dwell with a mind that is unconfined.

‘I, your reverences,
not feeling attracted to things heard,
not feeling repelled by them,
independent,
not infatuated,
freed,
released,
dwell with a mind that is unconfined.

‘I, your reverences,
not feeling attracted to things sensed,
not feeling repelled by them,
independent,
not infatuated,
freed,
released,
dwell with a mind that is unconfined.

‘I, your reverences,
not feeling attracted to things cognised,
not feeling repelled by them,
independent,
not infatuated,
freed,
released,
dwell with a mind that is unconfined.

So, your reverences,
as I know thus,
see thus,
in respect of these four modes of statement,
I can say that my mind
is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining).’

Monks, that monk’s words
should be rejoiced in
and approved of by the monks,
saying:

‘It is good.’

When they have rejoiced in
and approved of his words,
saying, ‘It is good,’
a further question might be asked:[5]

‘Your reverence,
these five groups of grasping
have been rightly pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

What five?

That is to say,
the group of grasping after material shape,
the group of grasping after feeling,
the group of grasping after perception,
the group of grasping after the habitual tendencies,
the group of grasping after consciousness.

Your reverence,
these five groups of grasping
have been rightly [83] pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

But knowing what,
seeing what
in respect of these five groups of grasping
can your reverence say
that his mind is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining)?’

Monks, the explanation of the monk
in whom the cankers are destroyed,
done what was to be done,
laid down the burden,
attained his own welfare,
in whom the fetters of becoming
are utterly destroyed
and who is freed
by right profound knowledge,
would be in accordance with Dhamma
were he to say:

‘I, your reverences,
having known that material shape
is of little strength,
fading away,[6]
comfortless;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after[7] material shape
which is a mental dogma,
biases and tendencies,[8]
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
having known that feeling
is of little strength,
fading away,
comfortless;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after feeling
which is a mental dogma,
biases and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
having known that perception
is of little strength,
fading away,
comfortless;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after perception
which is a mental dogma,
biases and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
having known that the habitual tendencies
is of little strength,
fading away,
comfortless;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after the habitual tendencies
which is a mental dogma,
biases and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
having known that consciousness
is of little strength,
fading away,
comfortless;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after consciousness
which is a mental dogma,
biases and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

So, your reverences,
as I know thus,
see thus
in respect of these five groups of grasping,
I can say that my mind
is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining).’

Monks, that monk’s words
should be rejoiced in
and approved of
by the monks,
saying:

‘It is good.’

When they have rejoiced in
and approved of his words,
saying: ‘It is good,’
a further question might be asked:

Your reverence,
these six elements
have been rightly pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

What six?

The element of extension,
the element of cohesion,
the element of radiation,
the element of motion,[9]
the element of space,[10] the element of consciousness.[11]

Your reverence,
these six [84] elements
have been rightly pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

But knowing what,
seeing what
in respect of these six elements
can your reverence say
that his mind is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining)?’

Monks, the explanation of that monk
in whom the cankers are destroyed,
done what was to be done,
laid down the burden,
attained his own welfare,
in whom the fetters of becoming
are utterly destroyed
and who is freed
by right profound knowledge,
would be in accordance with Dhamma
were he to say:

‘I, your reverences,
went to the element of extension
as not-self
and to self
as not dependent on the element of extension
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up
and casting out of grasping after
and hankering after
things which are dependent on the element of extension
which is a mental dogma,
bias
and tendency,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
went to the element of cohesion
as not-self
and to self
as not dependent on the element of cohesion;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up
and casting out of grasping after
and hankering after
these things which are dependent on the element cohesion
which is a mental dogma,
bias
and tendency,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
went to the element of radiation
as not-self
and to self
as not dependent on the element of radiation;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up
and casting out of grasping after
and hankering after
these things which are dependent on the element of radiation
which is a mental dogma,
bias
and tendency,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
went to the element of motion
as not-self
and to self
as not dependent on the element of motion;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up
and casting out of grasping after
and hankering after
these things which are dependent on the element of motion
which is a mental dogma,
bias
and tendency,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
went to the element of space
as not-self
and to self
as not dependent on the element of space;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up
and casting out of grasping after
and hankering after
these things which are dependent on the element of space
which is a mental dogma,
bias
and tendency,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘I, your reverences,
went to the element of consciousness
as not-self
and to self
as not dependent on the element of consciousness;
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up
and casting out of grasping after
and hankering after
these things which are dependent on the element of consciousness
which are mental dogmas,
biases
and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

So, your reverences,
as I know thus,
see thus
in respect of these six elements,
I can say that my mind
is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining).’

Monks, that monk’s words
should be rejoiced in
and approved of
by the monks,
saying:

‘It is good.’

When they have rejoiced in
and approved of his words,
saying: ‘It is good,’
a further question might be asked:

Your reverence,
these six internal
and external (sense-)fields
have been rightly pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees,
perfected one,
fully Self-Awakened One.

What six?

The eye as well as material shapes,
the ear as well as sounds,
the nose as well as smells,
the tongue as well as tastes,
the body as well as tactile objects,
the mind as well as mental states.

Your reverence,
these six internal
and external (sense-)fields
have been rightly pointed out
by that Lord who knows and sees,
perfected one,
fully Selff-Awakened One.

But knowing what,
seeing what
in respect of these six internal
and external (sense-)fields
can your reverence say
that his mind is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining)?’

Monks, the explanation of that monk
in whom the cankers are destroyed,
done what was to be done,
laid down the burden,
attained his own welfare,
in whom the fetters of becoming
are utterly destroyed
and who is freed
by right profound knowledge,
would be in accordance with Dhamma
were he to say:

‘Your reverences,
whatever is desire,
whatever is attachment,
whatever is delight,
whatever is craving
for eye,
material shape,
visual con- [85] sciousness
and for things cognisable
through visual consciousness,[12]
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and
casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after
these things
which are mental dogmas,
biases
and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘Your reverences,
whatever is desire,
whatever is attachment,
whatever is delight,
whatever is craving
for ear,
sounds,
auditory consciousness
and for things cognisable
through auditory consciousness,
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and
casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after
these things
which are mental dogmas,
biases
and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘Your reverences,
whatever is desire,
whatever is attachment,
whatever is delight,
whatever is craving
the nose,
smells,
olfactory consciousness
and for things cognisable
through olfactory consciousness,
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and
casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after
these things
which are mental dogmas,
biases
and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘Your reverences,
whatever is desire,
whatever is attachment,
whatever is delight,
whatever is craving
the tongue,
tastes,
gustatory consciousness
and for things cognisable
through gustatory consciousness,
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and
casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after
these things
which are mental dogmas,
biases
and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘Your reverences,
whatever is desire,
whatever is attachment,
whatever is delight,
whatever is craving
the body,
tactile objects,
bodily consciousness
and for things cognisable
through bodily consciousness,
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and
casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after
these things
which are mental dogmas,
biases
and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

‘Your reverences,
whatever is desire,
whatever is attachment,
whatever is delight,
whatever is craving
the mind,
mental states,
bodily consciousness
and for things cognisable
through mental consciousness,
by the destruction,
fading away,
stopping,
giving up and
casting out
of grasping after
and hankering after
these things
which are mental dogmas,
biases
and tendencies,
I comprehend that my mind is freed.

So, your reverences,
as I know thus,
see thus
in respect of these six
internal-external (sense-)fields,
I can say that my mind
is freed from the cankers
with no grasping (remaining).’

Monks, that monk’s words
should be rejoiced in
and approved of by the monks,
saying:

‘It is good.’

When they have rejoiced in
and approved of his words,
saying: ‘It is good,’
a further question might be asked:

‘But knowing what,
seeing what
in respect of this oonsciousness-informed body
and all external phenomena
can your reverence say
that his tendency to pride
that “I am the doer,
mine is the doer”
is properly extirpated?’

Monks, the explanation of that monk
in whom the cankers are destroyed,
done what was to be done,
laid down the burden,
attained his own welfare,
in whom the fetters of becoming
are utterly destroyed
and who is freed
by right profound knowledge,
would be in accordance with Dhamma
were he to say:

‘Formerly, your reverences,
when I was a householder,
I was ignorant.

The Tathāgata
or a disciple of the Tathāgata
taught me Dhamma.

When I had heard that Dhamma
I gained faith in the Tathāgata;
being possessed of that faith
I had gained in him,
I reflected thus:

“The household life is confined and dusty,[13]
going forth is in the open;
it is not easy for one who lives in a house
to fare the Brahma-faring
wholly fulfilled,
wholly pure,
polished like a conch-shell.

Suppose now that I,
having cut off my hair and beard,
having put on saffron robes,
should go forth from home
into homelessness?”

For those interested in editorial tampering this paragraph should be interesting. It is supposed to be being spoken by the one who is giving up the world, but he speaks of his wealth and relations as being ‘great or small’. He would know which.

p.p. explains it all — p.p.

So I, your reverences,
after a time,
getting rid of my wealth,
whether small or great,
getting rid of my circle of relations,
whether small or great,
having cut off my hair and beard,
having put on saffron robes,
went forth from home
into homelessness.

I, being gone forth thus,
endowed with the training
and the way of living of monks,
abandoning onslaught on creatures,
[86] abstained from onslaught on creatures;
the stick laid aside,
the sword laid aside,
I lived scrupulous,
kindly,
friendly
and compassionate
towards all living things and creatures.

Abandoning the taking of what had not been given,
I abstained from taking what had not been given;
taking (only) what was given,
waiting for what was given,
without stealing
I lived with self become pure.

Abandoning unchastity,
I was one that was chaste,
keeping remote (from unchastity),
refraining from dealings with women.

Abandoning lying speech,
I was one who abstained from lying speech,
I was a truth-speaker,
a bondsman to truth,
trustworthy,
dependable,
no deceiver of the world.

Abandoning slanderous speech,
I abstained from slanderous speech;
having heard something here
I was not one to repeat it elsewhere
for causing variance among these (people);
or, having heard something elsewhere
I was not one to repeat it here
for causing variance among these (people).

In this way
I was a reconciler of those who were at variance
and one who combined those who were friends.

Concord was my pleasure,
concord my delight,
concord my joy,
concord the motive of my speech.

Abandoning harsh speech,
I abstained from harsh speech.

Whatever speech was gentle,
pleasing to the ear,
affectionate,
going to the heart,
urbane,
pleasant to the manyfolk,
agreeable to the many folk —
I was one who uttered speech like that.

Abandoning frivolous chatter,
I abstained from frivolous chatter.

I was a speaker at the right time,
a speaker of fact,
a speaker on the goal,
a speaker on Dhamma,
a speaker on discipline,
I spoke words that were worth treasuring,
with opportune similes,
purposeful,
connected with the goal.

I abstained from destruction to seed-growth
and vegetable growth.

I was one who ate one meal a day,
desisting at night,
refraining from eating at a wrong time.

I abstained from watching shows
of dancing,
singing
and music.

I abstained from using garlands,
scents,
unguents,
adornments,
finery.

I abstained from using high beds,
large beds.

I abstained from accepting gold and silver.

I abstained from accepting raw grain.

I abstained from accepting raw meat.

I abstained from accepting women and girls.

I abstained from accepting women slaves
and men slaves.

I abstained from accepting goats and sheep.

I abstained from accepting fowl and swine.

I abstained from accepting elephants,
cows,
horses,
mares.

I abstained from accepting fields and sites.

I was one that abstained from the practice
of sending or going on messages.

I abstained from buying and selling.

I abstained from cheating with weights,
bronzes
and measures.

I abstained from the crooked ways of bribery,
fraud
and deceit.

I abstained from maiming,
murdering,
manacling,
highway robbery.

I was contented with the robes
for protecting my body,
with the almsfood
for sustaining my stomach.

Wherever [87] I went
I took these things with me as I went.

As a bird on the wing
takes its wings with it wherever it flies,
even so did I, your reverences,
contented with the robes
for protecting my body
and with the alms-food
for sustaining my stomach,
take these things with me
wherever I went.

I,
possessed of this body of ariyan moral habit,
inwardly experienced
the bliss of blamelessness.

If I saw a material shape with the eye
I was not entranced by the general appearance,
I was not entranced by the detail.

If I dwelt with this organ of sight uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states,
might flow in.

So I fared along controlling it,
I guarded the organ of sight,
I achieved control over the organ of sight.

If I heard a sound with the ear
I was not entranced by the general appearance,
I was not entranced by the detail.

If I dwelt with this organ of hearing uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states,
might flow in.

So I fared along controlling it,
I guarded the organ of hearing,
I achieved control over the organ of hearing.

If I smelt a smell with the nose
I was not entranced by the general appearance,
I was not entranced by the detail.

If I dwelt with this organ of smell uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states,
might flow in.

So I fared along controlling it,
I guarded the organ of smell,
I achieved control over the organ of smell.

If I savoured a taste with the tongue
I was not entranced by the general appearance,
I was not entranced by the detail.

If I dwelt with this organ of taste uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states,
might flow in.

So I fared along controlling it,
I guarded the organ of taste,
I achieved control over the organ of taste.

If I felt a touch with the body
I was not entranced by the general appearance,
I was not entranced by the detail.

If I dwelt with this organ of touch uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states,
might flow in.

So I fared along controlling it,
I guarded the organ of touch,
I achieved control over the organ of touch.

If I cognised a mental state with the mind
I was not entranced by the general appearance,
I was not entranced by the detail.

If I dwelt with this organ of mind uncontrolled,
covetousness and dejection,
evil unskilled states,
might flow in.

So I fared along controlling it,
I guarded the organ of mind,
I achieved control over the organ of mind.

I,
posaessed of this ariyan control
over the sense-organs,
inwardly experienced
the bliss of being “unaffected.”[14]

Whether I was setting out
or returning,
I was one who comported myself properly;
whether I was looking down
or looking round,
I was one who comported myself properly;
bending back
or stretching out (my arm),
I was one who comported myself properly;
carrying my outer cloak,
bowl
or robe,
I was one who comported myself properly;
munching,
drinking,
eating,
savouring,
I was one who comported myself properly;
obeying the calls of nature,
I was one who comported myself properly;
walking,
standing,
sitting,
asleep,
awake,
talking
or silent,
I was one who comported myself properly.

Possessed of this ariyan body of moral habit and
possessed of this ariyan control over the sense-organs and
possessed of this ariyan mindfulness and clear consciousness,
I chose a remote lodging in a forest,
at the root of a tree,
on a mountain slope,
in a wilderness,
a hill-cave,
a cemetery,
a forest haunt,
in the open or on a heap of straw.

Returning from alms-gathering
after the meal,
I sat down cross-legged,
holding the back erect,
having made mindfulness rise up in front of me.

By getting rid of covetousness for the world,
I dwelt with a mind devoid of coveting,
I purified the mind of coveting.

By getting rid of the taint of ill-will,
I dwelt benevolent in mind;
and compassionate for the welfare
of all creatures and beings,
I purified the mind of the taint of ill-will.

By getting rid of sloth and torpor,
I dwelt devoid of sloth and torpor;
perceiving the light,
mindful and clearly conscious,
I purified the mind of sloth and torpor.

By getting rid of restlessness and worry,
I dwelt calmly,
[88] the mind subjectively tranqilised,
I purified the mind of restlesssness and worry.

By getting rid of doubt,
I dwelt doubt-crossed,
unperplexed as to the states that are skilled,
I purified the mind of doubt.

By getting rid of these five hindrances —
defilements of the mind and weakening to intuitive wisdom —
aloof from pleasures of the senses,
aloof from unskilled states of mind,
I entered on and abided in the first meditation
which is accompanied by initial thought
and discursive thought,
is born of aloofness,
and is rapturous and joyful.

By allaying initial thought and discursive thought,
his mind subjectively tranquillised
and fixed on one point,
I entered on
and abided in
the second meditation
which is devoid of initial and discursive thought,
is born of concentration
and is rapturous and joyful.

By the fading out of rapture,
I dwelt with equanimity,
attentive and clearly conscious,
and experiencing in my person
that joy of which the ariyans say:
‘Joyful lives he who has equanimity and is mindful,’
I entered on
and abided in
the third meditation.

By getting rid of joy
and by getting rid of anguish,
by the going down of my former pleasures and sorrows,
I entered on
and abided in
the fourth meditation
which has neither anguish nor joy,
and which is entirely purified
by equanimity and mindfulness.

Thus with the mind composed,
quite purified,
quite clarified,
without blemish,
without defilement,
grown soft and workable,
stable,
immovable,
I directed my mind
to the knowledge of
the destruction of the cankers.[15]

I understood as it really is:

This is anguish.

I understood as it really is:

This the arising of anguish.

I understood as it really is:

This the stopping of anguish.

I understood as it really is:

This the course
leading to the stopping of anguish.

I understood as it really is:

These are the cankers.

I understood as it really is:

This is the arising of the cankers.

I understood as it really is:

This the stopping of the cankers.

I understood as it really is:

This the course
leading to the stopping of the cankers.

When I knew and saw this thus,
my mind was freed
from the canker of the sense-pleasures and
my mind was freed
from the canker of becoming and
my mind was freed
from the canker of ignorance.

In freedom
the knowledge came to be that
I was freed and
I comprehended:

‘Destroyed is birth,
brought to a close the Brahma-faring,
done is what was to be done,
there is no more of being such or so.’

So, your reverences,
as I know [89] thus,
see thus,
in respect of this consciousness-informed body
and all external phenomena,
I can say that my tendency to pride that
“I am the doer,
mine is the doer”
has been properly extirpated.’

Monks, that monk’s words
should be rejoiced in
and approved of
by the monks,
saying:

‘It is good.’

When they have rejoiced in
and approved of his words,
saying: ‘It is good,’
he should be informed thus:

‘It is a gain for you, your reverence,
it is well gotten by you, your reverence,
that we see a Brahma-farer
in one such as is the venerable one.'”

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, these monks rejoiced
in what the Lord had said.

 


[1] Or, “neither approved of nor scorned.” Cf. M. iii. 207, D. ii. 124.

[2]vohhāra.

[3] On diṭṭha suta muta viññāta See B.D. ii, 166, n. 3; and cf. Vin. iv. 2, A. ii, 246, iv. 307, D. iii. 232, Vbh. 376.

[4] “Attracted, repelled, independent,” etc., as at M. iii. 25.

[5] That is, if the monks are not satisfied with his explanation.

[6] virāga, explained at MA. iv. 92 as viga-c-chanasa-bhāva, “of the nature to disappear.”

[7] upāyupādāna, a synonym for wrong views and craving, MA. iv, 92.

[8] Cf. S. ii. 17, iii. 10.

[9] The first four as in M. Sta. 1. On the five see M. i. 423 f.; and on the six see M. iii. 62, 240, D. iii. 247, S. ii. 248, A. i. 176, VbhA. 82 ff., and cf. VbhA.55

[10] ākāsadhātu, or possibly the element of the intangible. Ākāsa is explained as asamphuṭṭha, not filled with, not contacted (or untouched). C.P.D., s.v. a-samphuṭt, gives “not filled (with: instr.)”; cf. Asl. 325-326 which says it is impossible to plough, cut or break ākāsa, sky, space, ether. See Dhs. 638: ākāso … asamphuṭṭhaɱ catūhi mahābhūtehi, not filled with the four great elementals. Bud. Psych. Ethics, p. 194, notes 1, 2, refers to M. i. 423 and points out that ākāsadhātu appears to occur as a fifth element there. See Miln. 271 where of ākāsa and nibbāna it is said that neither is born of deeds, cause or the creative power of nature. The question of “space” is discussed by A.B. Keith in Bud. Philosophy, pp. 168-169.

[11] viññāṇadhātu, called at MA. iv. 93 = VbhA. 55 vijānadhātu, element of discrimination.

[12] Whether past, future or present, MA: iv. 93 ff. where reference is also made to the Channovādasutta (M. Sta. 144).

[13] For the following passage cf. M. i. 179 ff. (M.L.S. i. 224 ff).

[14] See note at M.L.S. ii, 11 (on M. i. 346).

[15] Bu. at MA. iv. 94 is rather hard put to it to explain the six ways of cleansing, and says the name of this Discourse is also Ekavisajjaka sutta, the Discourse on Adhering to one (thing). Here the six to be purified are the four statements, the five groups, the six elements, the six internal-external sense-fields, one’s own consciousness-informed body, and that of others. But Theras living overseas reduce the conciousness-informed body of oneself and of others to one (category) and speak of the six parts together with the four kinds of nutriment. But these six parts: Of what, how then, when, where have you possession, which defilements have you destroyed, how many things have you acquired? — should be corrected by the Vinaya exegesis.

Bu. also says, loc. cit., that former habitations and deva-like vision were not spoken of because monks do not ask about a mundane state but only about a supermundane one.



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