Kinh Trung Bộ ENG 62 Ðại Kinh Giáo Giới La-hầu-la (Mahā Rāhulovāda sutta)

Kinh Trung Bộ ENG 62 Ðại Kinh Giáo Giới La-hầu-la (Mahā Rāhulovāda sutta)

Phần I  –  Phần II  –  Phần III


Majjhima Nikāya
II. Majjhima-Paṇṇāsa
2. Bhikkhu Vagga

The Middle Length Sayings
II. The Middle Fifty Discourses
2. The Division on Monks

Sutta 62

Mahā Rāhul’Ovāda Suttaɱ

Translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, O.B.E., M.A.
Associate of Newham College, Cambridge
First Published in 1954

Copyright The Pali Text Society
Commercial Rights Reserved
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[91]

[1][chlm][than][upal] THUS have I heard:

At one time the Lord was staying near Sāvatthī
in the Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.

Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe,
entered Sāvatthī for almsfood.

The venerable Rāhula,
[421] having also dressed in the morning,
taking his bowl and robe
followed close after the Lord.

Then the Lord, having looked round,
addressed the venerable Rāhula,
saying:

“Whatever, Rāhula, is material shape,
past, future, present,
subjective or objective,
gross or subtle,
low or excellent,
distant or near,
all material shape
should be seen as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom
thus:

‘This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.'”

“Only material shape, Lord,
only material shape, Wellfarer?”

“Material shape, Rāhula,
and feeling, Rāhula,
and perception, Rāhula,
and the habitual tendencies, Rāhula,
and consciousness, Rāhula.”

Then the venerable Rāhula thought:

“Who indeed today,
when he has been exhorted
with an exhortation face-to-face with the Lord,
could enter a village for almsfood?”

And turning back from there,
he sat down cross-legged
at the root of a tree,
holding his back erect
and arousing mindfulness in front of him.

Then the venerable Sāriputta
saw the venerable Rāhula sitting down cross-legged
at the root of the tree,
holding his back erect
and arousing mindfulness in front of him;
and seeing him,
he addressed the venerable Rāhula,
saying:

“Develop the (mind-) development[1]
that is mindfulness
on in-breathing and out-breathing, Rāhula.

Mindfulness on in-breathing and out-breathing, Rāhula,
if developed and made much of
is of great fruit, of great advantage.”

Then the venerable [92] Rāhula,
emerging from solitary meditation towards evening,
approached the Lord;
having approached,
having greeted the Lord,
he sat down at a respectful distance.

As he was sitting down at a respectful distance,
the venerable Rāhula spoke thus to the Lord:

“Revered sir, how
if mindfulness on in-breathing and out-breathing
is developed and made much of
is it of great fruit,
of great advantage?”

“Whatever,[2] Rāhula,
is hard,
solid,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
that is to say:
the hair of the head,
the hair of the body,
nails,
teeth,
skin,
flesh,
sinews,
bones,
marrow of the bones,
kidney,
heart,
liver,
pleura,
spleen,
lungs,
intestines,
mesentery,
stomach,
excrement,
or whatever other thing is hard,
solid,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
this, Rāhula,
is called the internal element of extension.

Whatever is an internal element of extension
and whatever is an external element of extension,
just these are the element of extension.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
it should be seen of this
as it really is,
thus:

‘This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.’

[422] Having seen it thus
as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the element of extension,
he cleanses his thought
of the element of extension.

And what, Rāhula,
is the liquid element?

The liquid element may be internal,
it may be external.

And what, Rāhula, is the internal liquid element?

Whatever is liquid,
fluid,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
that is to say:
bile,
phlegm,
pus,
blood,
sweat,
fat,
tears,
serum,
saliva,
mucus,
synovial fluid,
urine
or whatever other thing is liquid,
fluid,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
this, Rāhula,
is called the internal liquid element.

Whatever is an internal liquid element
and whatever is an external liquid element,
just these are the liquid element.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
it should be seen of this
as it really is,
thus:

‘This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.’

Having seen this thus
as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the liquid element,
he cleanses his thought
of the liquid element.

And what, Rāhula,
is the element of heat?

The heat element may be internal,
it may be external.

And what, Rāhula,
is the [93] internal heat element?

Whatever is heat,
warmth,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
such as by whatever one is vitalised,
by whatever one is consumed,
by whatever one is burnt up,
and by whatever one has munched,
drunk,
eaten
and tasted
that is properly transformed (in digestion),
or whatever other thing
is heat,
warmth,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
this, Rāhula,
is called the internal heat element.

Whatever is an internal element of heat
and whatever is an external element of heat,
just these are the element of heat.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
it should be seen of this
as it really is,
thus:

‘This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.’

Having seen this thus
as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the heat element,
he cleanses his thought
of the heat element.

And what, Rāhula,
is the element of motion?

The element of motion may be internal,
it may be external.

And what, Rāhula,
is the internal element of motion?

Whatever is motion,
wind,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
such as winds going upwards,
winds going downwards,
winds in the abdomen,
winds in the belly,
winds that shoot across the several limbs,
in-breathing,
out-breathing,
or whatever other thing
is motion,
wind,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
this, Rāhula,
is called the internal element of motion.

Whatever is an internal element of motion
and whatever is an external element of motion,
just these are the element of motion.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
it should be seen of this
as it really is,
thus:

‘This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.’

Having seen this thus
as it really is
[423] by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the element of motion,
he cleanses his thought
of the element of motion.

And what, Rahlda,
is the element of space?[3]

The element of space may be internal,
it may be external.

And what, Rāhula,
is the internal element of space?

Whatever is space,
spacious,
is internal,
referable to an individual
and derived therefrom,
such as the auditory and nasal orifices,
the door of the mouth
and that by which one swallows
what is munched,
drunk,
eaten
and tasted,
and where this remains,
and where it passes out of (the body) lower down,
or whatever other thing
is space,
spacious,
is internal,
referable to an [94] individual
and derived therefrom,
this, Rāhula,
is called the internal element of space.

Whatever is an internal element of space
and whatever is an external element of space,
just these are the element of space.

By means of perfect intuitive wisdom
it should be seen of this
as it really is,
thus:

‘This is not mine,
this am I not,
this is not my self.’

Having seen this thus
as it really is
by means of perfect intuitive wisdom,
he disregards the element of space,
he cleanses his thought
of the element of space.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is like the earth,[4] Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like the earth, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

As, Rāhula,
people cast what is clean
on to the earth
and what is unclean
and ordure
and urine
and spittle
and pus
and blood,
and yet the earth
is not troubled thereby
nor worried
or disgusted,
even so do you, Rāhula,
develop the (mind-) development
that is like the earth.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like the earth, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is like water, Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like water, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

As, Rāhula,
people wash what is clean in water
and what is unclean
and wash away ordure
and urine
and spittle
and pus
and blood,
and yet the water
is not troubled thereby
nor worried
or disgusted,
[424] even so do you, Rāhula,
develop the (mind-) development
that is like water.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like water, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is like fire,[5] Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like fire, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

As, Rāhula,
fire burns what is clean
and what is unclean
and ordure
and urine
and spittle
and pus
and blood,
and yet the fire is not troubled thereby
nor [95] worried or disgusted,
even so do you, Rāhula,
develop the (mind-) development
that is like fire.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like fire, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is like wind, Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like wind, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

As, Rāhula,
the wind blows upon what is clean
and what is unclean
and upon ordure
and urine
and spittle
and pus
and blood,
and yet the wind
is not troubled thereby
nor worried
or disgusted,
even so do you, Rāhula,
develop the (mind-) development
that is like wind.

For from developing the (mind-) development
that is like wind, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

Develop the (mind-) development that is like air, Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like air, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.

As, Rāhula,
the air does not repose anywhere,
even so do you, Rāhula,
develop the (mind-) development
that is like air.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is like air, Rāhula,
agreeable and disagreeable sensory impressions
that have arisen,
taking hold of your thought,
will not persist.[6]

Develop the (mind-) development
that is friendliness,[7] Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is friendliness, Rāhula,
that which is malevolence
will be got rid of.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is compassion, Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is compassion, Rāhula,
that which is harming
will be got rid of.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is sympathetic joy, Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is sympathetic joy, Rāhula,
that which is dislike[8]
will be got rid of.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is equanimity, Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is equanimity, Rāhula,
that which is sensory reaction
will be got rid of.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is [96] on the foul, Rāhula.

For, from developing the (mind-)development
that is on the foul, Rāhula,
that which is attachment
will be got rid of.[9]

Develop the (mind-) development
that is perception of impermanence, Rāhula.

[425] For, from developing the (mind-) development
that is perception of impermanence, Rāhula,
that which is the conceit,
‘I am’[10]
will be got rid of.

Develop the (mind-) development
that is mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing, Rāhula.

Mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing, Rāhula,
is of great fruit,
of great advantage.

And how, Rāhula,
if mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing is developed,
how, if it is made much of,
is it of great fruit, of great advantage?

As to this, Rāhula,
a monk who is-forest-gone[11]
or gone to the root of a tree
or gone to an empty place,
sits down cross-legged,
holding his back erect,
arousing mindfulness in front of him.

Mindful he breathes in,
mindful he breathes out.

Breathing in a long (breath) he comprehends,

‘I am breathing in a long (breath)’;

or breathing out a long (breath) he comprehends,

‘I am breathing out a long (breath)’;

or breathing in a short (breath) he comprehends,

‘I am breathing in a short (breath)’;

or breathing out a short (breath) he comprehends,

‘I am breathing out a short (breath).’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body’;

he trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in tranquillising the activity of the body’;

he trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out tranquillising the activity of the body.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in experiencing rapture’;

he trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out experiencing rapture.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in experiencing happiness’;

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out experiencing happiness’.

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in experiencing the activity of thought’;

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out experiencing the activity of thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in tranquillising the activity of thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out tranquillising the activity of thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in experiencing thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out experiencing thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in rejoicing in thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out rejoicing in thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in concentrating thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out concentrating thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in freeing thought.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out freeing thought.’

He trains himself thinking::

‘I shall breathe in beholding impermanence.’

He trains himself thinking::

‘I shall breathe out beholding impermanence.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in beholding dispassion.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out beholding dispassion.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe in beholding stopping.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out beholding stopping.’

He trains himself thinking::

‘I shall breathe in beholding casting away.’

He trains himself thinking:

‘I shall breathe out beholding casting away.’

[97] Mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing
if developed thus, Rāhula,
if made much of thus,
is of great fruit,
of great advantage.

When, Rāhula,
mindfulness of in-breathing and out-breathing
has been developed thus,
[426] has been made much of thus,
then those which are
the last in-breaths and out-breaths
are also stopped
only when they are known,
not when they are unknown.”[12]

Thus spoke the Lord.

Delighted, the venerable Rāhula rejoiced in what the Lord had said.

Greater Discourse on an Exhortation to Rāhula

 


[1] bhāvanaɱ bhāvehi.

[2] Down to the end of “the element of motion,” cf. M. Sta. 28. For notes, see M.L.S. i. 231 ff. Cf. A. ii. 164, and see G.S. ii. 171, n. 1.

[3] ākāsadhātu does not occur in Sta. 28, but in Stas. 112, 115, 140 viññāṇadhātu is added to the five mentioned above, as also at D. iii. 247, A. i. 176. See also Dhs. 638.

[4] Earth, water, fire, wind, ākāsa are in Pali the same for the words rendered above respectively: extension, liquid (or cohesion), heat, motion, space. For a note on ākāsa, see above, p. 17, n. 1. Cf. Thag. 1014 where Sāriputta says of himself that he is like earth, water, fire in that he is neither attachcd to nor revolted by (sensory impingements); and A. iv. 394 f. where he tells the Lord that he abides with his mind like the first four of these elements.

[5] Cf. Miln. 385.

[6] These last two sentences are quoted at Miln. 388.

[7] For this and the following five kinds of mental development, cf. the six nissarānīyā dhātuyo (elements from which there is escape) at D. iii. 247-250, a passage which shows interesting similarities as well as variations in respect of the six “developments” of the M. passage above.

[8] arati. aversion, fretting. MA. iii. 140 explains arati as arati pantasenāsanesu c’eva adkikusalesu dhammesu ca ukkaṇṭhitā (aversion from, or dislike of, remote lodgings as well as longing for (fretting after) highly skilled dhammā (items, mental states?).

[9] Cf. A. iv. 46.

[10] asmimāna; cf. M. i. 139. It is the pride due to thinking, ‘I am in material shapes, and so on.’

[11] With the following cf. M. i. 56. All the terms, to the end of this Discourse, are explained in Vism., Ch. VIII.

[12] Vism. 291 f. gives some explanation of the meaning of ye pi te carimakā assāsapassāsā te pi viditā va nirujjhanti no aviditā.



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